A R K A I M

monument of protocities civilization

For more than one hundred years, historians and linguists have searched for the Motherland of the founders of the bright and original Indo-European culture. Indo-Iranians were considered the "alive bridge" between the Easten and Western cultures - their genius are connecting many modern nations of both Asia and Europe.

When that small Indo-Iranians tribes lived toghether on large territory and named themselves "ar'ya". From this name the term "Aryan Tribes" became known in modern history. Aryans were the creators of famous religion of fire-worshipper and have leave after themselves the prominent monuments of literature - "Rigveda" and "Avesta".

One of the fascinating hypothesises (Mary Boyce) are placed the Motherland of ancient Indo-Iranians in area of the Asian steppes to east of Volga. Geography of deep layers of "Rigveda" and "Avesta" is compatible with historical geography of South Ural in XVII-XVI centuries B.C.

In 1987 the unique by safety and today the most studied from "country of cities" cultural complex Arkaim was discovered. The general area of monument is 20 thousand square meters. Area of archaeological excavations more than 8 thousands square meters. On modern steppes surface is well look the Arkaim's trench, two rings of earth bulwarks and central square. Archaelogical studies have shown, that bulwarks were remainder of defence walls, which was built from soil, ground blocks and wood. Inwardly the each ring "as spokes in wheel" were situated the dwellings, which were built from beam's carcasses and ground blocks. In housewifery parts of houses were hearths, wells, pits for product's keeping, metallurgical stoves. Before entrance in house - the roof yard. On present day is explored 29 dwellings. Geophisical methods have allowed to install that the whole complex are consisted from 60 dwellings (35 dwellings in external circle and 25 dwellings in inner circle). Circular and radial streets, system of water-supply and canalization, architecture overgate towers, transitions inwardly powerful defense walls - all this things are presenting very bright picture. The large collection of ceramics, manufactures from bone and stone, metallic instruments and much things of metallurgical production are collected in Arkaim.

"Country of cities" is conditional name of steppes region on South Ural, where in XVIII-XVII centuries B.C. is formed the bright civilization of bronze age, the contemporary of pyramids of Middle Kingdom of Egypt and famous palaces of Krito- Miken culture. Archaeological "country of cities" become known with opening of cultural complexes: Arkaim, Sintashta, Ust'ye and theirs studies, as well as due to using the methods of cosmic and air-photographies. "Country of cities" is stretched along east slopes of Ural mountains from north to south nearly on 400 km. Today more than twenty consolidated centers, connected with them necropolies and hundreds of small nonreinforced settlements are discovered. Now Arkaim is the natural-landscaped and historical-archaeological museum.

Reinforced settlements have different construction: oval,circle,square. Location of houses, housewifery parts, streets are defined by construction of external defense walls. The circles of Arkaim and Sintashta, squares of Ust'ye and Chekotai were the sacred models of Universe. By faith of Indo-Iranians the Universe repeated the magic figure of Mandala - the circle inserted in square.

Economy of Arkaim inhabitants are based on the pastoral cattle - raising with elements of husbandry. Archaeological discoveries of Arkaim are speaking us about high level of metallurgy and metalworking. On ceramic wares are meeting the pictographies - elements of arising writings. Arkaim is simultaneously the temple, fortress, craft center and dwelling. Also, the whole complex may be consider as astronomical instrument for observations of selestian luminaries. Arkaim may be comprise to number of world archaic observatories either as Stonehendge.

Near by fortresses were located the barrow and ground tombs. On territory of Sintashta was found the most rich tomb complex in all steppe Euroasia with grandiose tomb temple. Here was burial the priests, warriors and ordinary inhabitants of town. The warriors had buried with their combat chariots and horses. Archaeologists have found in graves the rich craft instruments, weapon,home objects,embellishments and cult things, which help to better understand the religious and cosmogonical views of ancient inhabitants of South Ural.

"Man, which look to sky". Granite. Height 20,2 cm. The ritual thing,which has met on excavations of monuments of protocities civilization.
Clay containers from tombs of Arkaim and Sintashta. On the right: the small lamp with holes for hunging. This containers are putting in heads of deceased. At moment of buring in they were kept food: water, sometimes meat bouillon and porridge.
The bronze knives,costeps,cutlass from Arkaim XVII-XVI centuries B.C.
Reconstruction of one tomb from Sintashta. Body of warrior is located in chariot. Above - more later grave of man in accompaning with dog, two horses and other animals.
View of man from upper part of hammer. Casual discovery. Snaky stone. Height 11 cm. Stone sculpture of bronze epoch from steppe regions of Euroasia - unexplored page of world culture.
Settlement Arkaim. Reconstruction of metallurgical process. Well and hearth are connected by air channel. On bottom of well was put the sacrifices for God of Fire.
Settlement Sintashta. Fragment of reconstruction dwelling from wood and ground blocks.

Natural-landscaped and historical-archaeological museum "Arkaim"

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